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2022年IB大考押题预测!2022年ib大考即将来临!

橡沐国际教育Oak Oasis

发布日期:2022-03-04 16:16:34

今年的IB大考已经进入倒计时阶段啦,相信大家都已经在紧锣密鼓的复习了!那么,你知道有哪些重点是一定要熟读于心,有很大的可能会考到的嘛?2022年IB大考押题预测!先更新的是IB生物科目的重点内容,赶紧拿小本本记下来吧!

01 这些图你都会画了吗?

Drawing required in IB Biology

IB Biology SL

Topic 1 Cell Structure

Animal Cell, Plant Cell, Prokaryote Cell

Cell Membrane with Protein

Mitosis Steps (Metaphase, Anaphase)

Topic 2 Molecular Biology

Hydrogen Bonds Between Water Molecules

Formation Of Disaccharides (Condensation/ Hydrolysis)

Formation Of Lipids (Condensation/Hydrolysis)

Formation Of Proteins (Condensation/Hydrolysis of Peptides)

Enzyme-substrate Binding

DNA Structure

Topic 6 Human Physiology

Heart Structure

Phagocytosis

Neuron Structure

IB Biology HL

Topic 8 Metabolism

Mitochondria Structure

Chloroplast Structure

Topic 9 Animal Physiology

Xylem Phloem distribution in plants

Half Animal Pollinated Flower

Half View Of Dicotyledonous Seed

02 这些科学家和他们的实验都了解了吗?

Biologists and Their Experiments

Davson-Danielli - Sandwich Model

Singer-Nicolson - Fluid Mosaic Model

Pasteur- Swan necked Flask

Miller And Urey - Lightening Carbon Compounds Formation

Crick And Watson - DNA Structure Double Helix Nobel Price

Meselson And Stahl – Semiconservative Replication

Hershey And Chase(HL) - DNA as Genetic Material

Gregor Mendel- Genetic Crosses, Rules of Inheritance.

Chernobyl, Hiroshima, Nagasaki - Nuclear After Effects and Consequences

Dolly - First Cloned Sheep

Industrial Melanism - Adaptation, Natural Selection

Dialysis Tubing - Investigation of Membrane Permeability

William Harvey - Circulation of The Blood, Heart As Pump, Sexual Reproduction

Florey And Chain - Penicillin on Bacterial Infection

Calvin - Lollipop Apparatus

Morgan - Sex Linkage

03 这些经典问答题你都会了吗?

Typical Long Response Question

Topic 1

Distinguish between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. [5]

Outline the therapeutic use of stem cells. [5]

Explain how the properties of phospholipids help to maintain the structure of cell membranes. [4]

Outline four types of membrane transport, including their use of energy. [4]

Describe the events that occur during mitosis. [6]

Topic 2

Explain the importance of hydrogen bonding for living organisms. [7]

Distinguish between fibrous and globular proteins with reference to one example of each protein type. [4]

Outline how enzymes catalyse reactions. [5]

Explain the effect of changes of pH, substrate concentration and temperature on enzyme activity. [6]

Outline the production of lactose-free milk. [3]

Distinguish between the structures of DNA and RNA.  [3]

Explain how glucose is used in both anaerobic and aerobic cell respiration. [5]

Topic 3

Explain the cause of sickle cell anemia and how this disease affects humans. [8]

Outline the processes that occur during the first division of meiosis. [5]

Explain how males inherit hemophilia and how females can become carriers for the condition. [8]

Outline the process of DNA profiling. [4]

Explain the process of geneticlly modifying bacteria. [8]

Topic 4

Explain the processes by which energy enters and flows through ecosystems. [6]

Outline how the energy flow through food chains limits their length. [5]

Discuss the processes in the carbon cycle that affect concentrations of carbon dioxide and methane in the atmosphere and the consequences for climate change. [8]

Topic 5

Explain how evolution may happen in response to an environmental change. [6]

Topic 6

Explain the importance of enzymes to human digestion. [5]

Describe the processes involved in absorbing different nutrients across the cell membrane of villus epithelium cells lining the small intestine. [5]

Explain how the circulatory system is able to transport the blood under high pressure from the heart to the rest of the body. [5]

Outline how cuts in the skin are sealed to prevent blood loss. [4]

Explain the role of cells in the defence against infectious disease. [7]

Discuss the transmission and social implications of AIDS. [7]

Explain how ventilation and lung structure contribute to passive gas exchange. [7]

Explain the events that occur during a nerve impulse and how the impulse is propagated along an axon. [7]

Discuss the control of blood glucose levels and the consequences if they are not maintained.[8]

Outline the roles of estrogen and progesterone in females during human reproduction. [4]

Topic 7

Explain the roles of different enzymes in DNA replication in Prokaryotes. [7]

Explain the control of gene expression in eukaryotes. [7]

Topic 8

Explain how chemical energy for use in the cell’s generated by electron transport and chemiosmosis. [6]

Explain the processes by which light energy is converted into chemical energy. [8]

Topic 9

Describe how water is transported in Angiospermophyte. [7]

Explain how organic compounds are transported within plants. [7]

Topic 10

Explain how meiosis results in an effectively infinite genetic variety of gametes. [7]

Explain how natural selection can lead to speciation. [7]

Topic 11

Explain the production and role of antibodies in defense against bacterial pathogens in humans. [7]

Explain the process of muscle contraction. [7]

Explain the role of the kidney in osmoregulation. [8]

Compare and contrast the processes of spermatogenesis and oogenesis.  [5]

04 这些术语你都清楚了吗?

Key Terminologies

Topic 1

Prokaryotic Cell

Eukaryotic Cell

Organelle

Electron Microscopy

Membrane Proteins

Phospholipid Bilayer 

Diffusion

Osmosis

Active-transport 

Mitosis 

Cytokinesis 

Cell Cycles 

Cancer

Differentiation 

Stem Cells 

Binary Fission 

Cytoplasm 

Nucleoid 

70s, 80s  Ribosome 

Pili

Lysosome

Golgi Apparatus 

Rough ER

Smooth ER

Vesicles And Vacuoles

Mitochondrion

Chloroplast 

Cell Membrane 

Cell Wall

Interphase

G1 Phase

G2 Phase

S Phase

Oncogene

Metastasis

Carcinogen 

Topic 2

Metabolism

Carbohydrates

Polysaccharide 

Lipids

Cholesterol 

Amino Acids 

Polypeptide 

DNA Replication 

Transcription 

Translation 

Cell Respiration 

Photosynthesis 

Chromatography

Hydrolysis

Anabolism

Catabolism

Monomer

Hydrogen Bond

Hydrophilic

Hydrophobic

Cohesion

Adhesion

Sucrose

Glucose

Galactose

Fructose

Cellulose

Glycogen

Starch

Steroids

Saturated

Unsaturated

Cis Unsaturated 

Trans Unsaturated 

BMI

Denaturation 

Topic 3&4

Chromosomes 

Karyograms

Meiosis

Genetic variation 

Autosome

Genetic diseases 

Sex-linkage 

Co-dominance 

Mutation 

Gene

Allele

Gene Sequencing 

DNA profiling 

Genetic modification 

Cloning 

Cystic fibrosis

Huntington's disease 

Monohybrid cross

Species 

Population 

Community 

Ecosystem 

Abiotic environment 

Intraspecific interaction 

Interspecific competition 

Symbiotic relationship 

Parasite 

Food chain/food web

Trophic level 

Producer/consumer/Decomposer 

Detritivore / Saprotrophs 

Autotrophs / Heterotrophs 

Carbon cycle

Carbon flux diagram

Greenhouse effect 

Deforestation 

Topic 5

Heritable Characteristics 

Variation 

Natural Selection 

Sexual Reproduction 

Random Mutation 

Evolution  

Fossil Record

Radioactive Aging

Ratio Of Carbon Isotopes 

Selective Breeding

Artificial Selection 

Homologous Structures 

Pentadactyl Limbs 

Continuous Variation

Discontinuous Variation 

Competitive Advantage 

Adaptive Radiation 

Vertical Transmission 

Horizontal Transmission 

Multiple Resistance 

MRSA 

Binomial Naming System 

Bryophyta

Coniferophyte

Coniferophyte

Porifera

Cnidaria 

Platyhelminthes

Annelida

Mollusca

Arthropoda

Chordata

Dichotomous Key 

Clade/Cladograms 

Topic 6

Central Nervous System (CNS) 

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

Synapses 

Sensory Neurons 

Motor Neurons 

Interneurons 

Resting potential

Action Potential

Depolarization 

Hyperpolarization

Repolarization 

Homeostasis 

Positive Feedback/Negative Feedback

Insulin/Glucagon

Islets Of Langerhans 

Diabetes(type I/Type II)

Hormones

Thyroxin

Leptin

Melatonin

Gametogenesis 

Testosterone 

Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) 

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) 

Estrogen 

Progesterone 

Topic 7

DNA gyrase

Helicase

DNA primase

DNA polymerase

DNA ligase

Leading strand

Lagging strand

Non-coding sequence

Telomere

Nucleosome

VNTR

Splicing

Intron

Promoter

Transcription factor

Polysome

Free ribosome

Bounded ribosome

DNA methylation

Histone acetylation

Codon

Anticodon

A/P/E site

Primary structure

Secondary structure

Tertiary structure

Quaternary structure

Activation energy

Competitive inhibitor

Non-competitive inhibitor

End-product inhibition

Topic 8

Glycolysis

Phosphorylation

Link reaction

Krebs cycle

NADH

FADH2

Decarboxylation

Substrate-level phosphorylation

Oxidative phosphorylation

Electron transport chain

Electron carrier

Chemiosmosis

Intermembrane space

Proton gradient

ATP synthase

Light reaction

Photosystem

Thylakoid

NADPH

Calvin cycle

RuBP

Rubisco

Lollipop apparatus

Topic 9&10

Transpiration

Potometer

Xerophyte

Xylem

Phloem

Translocation

Phototropism

Pollination

Fertilisation

Mutualism

Germination

Phytochrome

Independent assortment

Dihybrid cross

Epistasis

Synapsis

Chiasmata

Bivalent

Non-sister chromatids

Gene linkage

Chi-squared test

Continuous variation

Dis-continuous variation

Directional selection

Stabilizing selection

Disruptive selection

Reproductive isolation

Topic 11

Antigen

Plasma cell

Memory cell

Helper T cell

Histamine

Vaccination

Monoclonal antibody

Sarcomere

I/A/H band

Troponin

Tropomyosin

Cross bridge

Antagonistic muscle

Osmoregulation

Glomerulus

Ultrafiltration

Podocytes

Selective reabsorption

ADH

Dialysis

Spermatogenesis

Spermatocyte

Sertoli cell

Acrosome reaction

Oogenesis

Corpus luteum

Cortical reaction

Menstrual cycle

Blastocyst

hCG

Oxytocin

Umbilical cord

Placenta

不过,大家也不要过度依赖“押题”,因为直到考试当天都没有任何人可以百分百肯定出题人的思路是怎样的,更无法预测分数线是如何被规划的,我们能做到的只是完善自己的复习工作,调整到一个沉着的“备战状态”。

说到底,扎实的基础才是王道,只有如此,我们才不必为不可知的事物花时间和精力!如果你在复习过程中遇到什么问题的话,欢迎咨询!

文章转载自:【橡沐国际教育Oak Oasis】

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