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华二昆山国际学校会“玩”的课堂大学问

华二昆山国际学校

发布日期:2021-12-20 18:36:18

1. 当我们在学习时,其实是在学什么?

A 知识

B 技能

C 思维方式

What do we actually acquire in the learning process?

A Knowledge

B Skills

C Ways of thinking

华二昆山国际学校会“玩”的课堂大学问
小学部校长 - 邹菁

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面对这样一道选择题,您会如何作答?

上海华二昆山学校(以下简称“华二昆山”)的答案是:以上都是。

在传统的单一学科教学场景下,通常是知识、技能的传递,但还不够,于是有了思维训练。可是这些逐层进阶的选项,真的能在一堂45分钟的课上全部实现吗?

在日常学科教学的基础上,华二昆山的老师们会运用PBL的教学方法,将以上答案统统串联起来,让每位学者在华二昆山能够收获别具一格的教育经历:

1.  获得多层次、多维度的能力培养

2.  成为高度自驱的主动学习者

3.  摆脱横向比较,成为更好的自己

接下来,跟着华二昆山小学部校长邹菁一起去看看,这些是怎么在日常的学科课堂中实现的?

ES Principal - Zoe Zou

What would your choice be?

The answer given by Shanghai Huaer Collegiate School Kunshan (Hereinafter referred to as “Huaer Kunshan”) is: all of the above.

In a traditional single subject teaching setting, it’s mostly about the transmission of knowledge and skills. But, this is not enough obviously, as the way of thinking is crucial as well. Then another question arises: can we actually achieve all of the gradually progressing options above in just one 45-minute class?

On the basis of daily classroom teaching by subject, the teachers at Huaer Kunshan also adopt a teaching method called PBL to link all above three aspects together so that each scholar could have a unique educational experience at Huaer Kunshan.

1. Capability development of multiple levels and dimensions

2. Becoming a highly self-motivated active learner

3. Aiming for a better self without excessive peer comparison

Now let’s follow Ms. Zoe Zou, Principal of the Elementary School, to see how this education experience is realized in the classrooms of Huaer Kunshan.              

从知识、技能到思维方式学习是充盈的获得过程

From knowledge and skills, to ways of thinking

Learning is a rewarding process of obtainment

走进一个教室:

被分为几个小组的学者们,正在一张大白纸上作画,有的画雪花,有的画雪人。再贴上几张充满了冬日元素的图片,一股冷冽的冬日氛围, 便跃然于纸上了。

这是一节什么课?

艺术?科学?还是课外活动?

其实,这是一堂小学语文课。

学者们正在学习散文《松坊溪的冬天》。老师正在引导学者们,摘出那些文本里的冬日元素,配上图片、简笔画,课文好像也一下子有了生命力。

语文课上的常规操作“有感情地朗读课文”、“标出生字生词”这里也有,只是变成了一种更有趣的形式:课文可以用自己喜欢的方式读、生字生词,会在画作上配字时自然发现。生硬感全不见了。

Walking into a classroom:

Several groups of scholars are drawing on a big sheet of blank paper: some are working on snowflakes and some on a snowman. Adding a few pictures containing winter elements, a beautiful winter landscape appears on the drawing paper.

What is this session? You may ask.

Arts, science or co-curricular activities?

Actually this is an elementary Chinese class.

Scholars are learning the prose “Songxi Creek’s winter”. The teacher is guiding the scholars to pick out the winter elements from the text and make the textbook alive with pictures and drawings.

We could also find traditional ways of teaching practices such as “read the text aloud with affections”, and “mark the unfamiliar characters and words”, but an interesting approach could be found in this classroom: scholars could read the text in the way they like, and learn the new characters and words by marking them on the drawing. The learning process becomes natural and effortless.

华二昆山国际学校会“玩”的课堂大学问
学生作品 /

在体验这堂课的家长和学者们看来,它像是“游戏”,又像是“活动”。其实,准确的说法应该是“项目”。这堂生动有趣的语文课,其实是一次“基于项目的学习”,亦称“项目式学习”,英文名为Project Based Learning,老师们通常叫它PBL。

For scholars and parents who experience this session, it feels more like a game, or an activity. However, the accurate way of describing it would be a “project”. This lively and interesting Chinese class is a kind of learning based on projects, i.e. Project Based Learning, which is often referred to by teachers as PBL.

PBL课堂

华二昆山国际学校会“玩”的课堂大学问
近几年,PBL几乎风靡全球,跟以前“老师讲、学生听”的课堂不同,它要求每个学习者“动”起来,在做项目的过程中,掌握学术要点。

通常,项目中还会涉及多个学科,涵盖多重综合能力。但在华二昆山,老师们可以取其精华而用之:在不同的学科课堂上,巧妙地加入PBL设计,打破学生只能从课本上获得知识的单一场景,可以在活动、项目中,把学科知识揉在一起,丰富学习体验。

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In recent years, PBL has become very popular around the globe. Different from the traditional one-way instruction from teachers to students, it encourages learner participation and meets the academic requirement during the process of the project.

The PBL projects normally involve multiple subjects and cover multiple layers of core competences. At Huaer Kunshan, teachers grasp the gist of this methodology and apply it to daily teaching: incorporating PBL design to different subjects, and thereby breaking the single scenario where students could only acquire knowledge from the textbook. Instead, subject knowledge is fused into different activities and projects, enriching the learning experience

PBL课堂

为什么PBL能串联出多维度培养?

不妨试着回想一下:

当我们死记硬背着公式、定理,是不是也常吐槽“学这些,到底有什么用?”

随着年纪的增长、阅历的增加,也发现,“其实学校里教的东西,我早都忘光了!”

看着孩子搞不清楚状况,也忍不住“我都跟你说了多少遍了,怎么还是记不住?” 

这些疑问,归根究底都是“学习体验”的问题。

因为学习情境的枯燥、乏味,好奇心和求知欲都被磨掉了,所以不想学、不愿学;

搞不清学习内容跟自己的生活有什么关系,所以觉得抽象、学不懂;

没有真正体验过、感受过,只听大人“说”,所以“记不住”。

所以需要PBL让课堂发生变化:它真正以学习者为中心,强调学习体验和探究过程,尤其注重学习内容和真实世界的连接。

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How does PBL realize multiple dimensions of student development?

Let’s reflect for a moment:

When we try to recite and remember formulas and theorem, did we not often complain “what’s the actual usage of all these”?

Along with growth of age and life experience, we often find “I’ve completely forgotten what I learnt at school!”.

When our children get confused while learning, we cannot help but say “I’ve told you many times. How could you forget?”

All these doubts could be concluded as problems of the “learning experience”.

Students are reluctant to learn because the tedious learning setting has rusted their curiosity and desire for knowledge;

Students find knowledge abstract and difficult to comprehend when they cannot relate the content of learning to real life;

Without real-life experience of a certain topic, students find it difficult to “remember” the knowledge when only hearing what adults “tell” them.

Here PBL comes into place to make real changes in classrooms. It is truly learner-centered by emphasizing the learning experience and exploration process, esp. the correlation between the content of learning and the real world.

华二昆山小学学者作品

华二昆山国际学校会“玩”的课堂大学问
在项目过程中,知识、技能与思维方式的培养,就可以非常自然而有效地串联起来了。

邹菁校长讲解说,“有知识、缺尝试,老师讲的内容,就不会变成‘我的经验’、‘我的常识’。所以让学者自己去体验、尝试、甚至是试错,自然而然地,他们就从中获得多维度的能力培养。”

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In this way, the development of knowledge, skills and modes of thinking could be naturally and effectively linked while the project is carried out.

Principal Zou explains, “If there’s only knowledge but no practice, what the teacher ‘tells’ students wouldn’t become ‘my experience’ and ‘my knowledge’. Therefore, scholars get developed on multiple dimensions when we let them try and experience, even if it the destination of the exploration is not what we had intended.”  

学习中的情境因素,是打开自驱力的关键

Scenario setting in the learning process is the key to self-motivation

“好忙!好累!可是也好好玩!”

音乐课一结束,两位小学者兴冲冲地跟家长分享他们的体验,意犹未尽的样子,让家长们都直呼惊喜。

这当然是因为课堂体验的与众不同:没有一板一眼的乐理知识,老师先带着小学者们手拉手、围成一圈,依序逐个表演一个肢体动作,然后喊出自己的名字。热身完毕后,大家就要一起合作,完成一首歌谣的表演。

在这个全班都要参与的小项目中,一开始还有几个小学者有点拘谨,渐渐地,在老师耐心的引导和环境的营造下,几乎每一位小学者参与起来了。

不用老师或家长在旁边一直盯着下指令,小学者们也能够主动地参与到这场寓教于乐的课堂中了。

“So busy! I’m knackered but it’s so much fun!”

At the end of a music lesson, with great excitement, two young scholars shared their experience with their parents, who were amazed at how much their children enjoyed the session.

Of course the excitement stems from a unique classroom experience where scrupulous music theory is nowhere to be found. Instead, the teacher led young scholars to form a circle holding hands, and perform a body movement one by one while shouting out their own names. After the warm-up, everyone worked together to perform a song.

During this project participated by the whole class, a few young scholars were a bit shy at the beginning. But gradually, with the teacher’s patient guidance and scenario setting, almost every scholar got actively involved.

Without teachers and parents giving orders on the side, scholars were able to proactively participate in this edutainment classroom.

音乐课堂

内驱力是如何被激发的?

项目式学习,总是给人一种“快乐学习”的印象。

然而,快乐教育不是不学习,而是真正从内心渴望学习、享受学习。正如邹菁校长所说,“良好的学习氛围才能引导出学者的积极态度,而积极的态度才能收获不一样的学习体验。”

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How is self-motivation stimulated?

PBL always leaves an impression of “happy learning”.

However, happy learning is not just about having fun, but to make students eager to learn and enjoy learning. Just as said by Principal Zou, “Only a fine learning environment could nurture scholars’ positive attitudes, and only the latter could lead to a unique learning experience.”

华二昆山国际学校会“玩”的课堂大学问
华二昆山课堂

家长们对此也应该是有所体会的。如果学习总是枯燥乏味的,学习者就会形成“肌肉记忆”,在潜意识里“学习=无聊”,不想学、不爱学也就不难理解了。

反之,当学习情境是丰富的、有趣的,学习者总是能够享受其中,那么热爱学习、享受学习的开关,自然而然地就会被打开。

因此,在华二昆山,每个教室都有一张教师的办公桌。老师们可以在这里,发挥自己的教学特点,和学者去装扮这个教室,营造班级文化。

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Parents must feel the same: if learning is boring, leaners develop “muscle memory” and equate learning to boredom in their sub-conscience, resulting in reluctance and unwillingness to learn.

On the contrary, learners would always enjoy the process if the learning scenario is rich and fun. The love for learning would be switched on naturally.

Therefore, there’s a teacher’s desk in every classroom of Huaer Kunshan. Together with their scholars, teachers decorate the classroom and form a unique class culture based on their own ways of education.

一个教室,就像一个博物馆。老师可以把学生的作品,所有学习过程的痕迹都留在这里,我们大家如何一步一步学过来的。当学习环境是生动的、氛围是正向的,学者在学习过程中就会是热情的、有生命力的。



A classroom is like a museum. Teachers demonstrate scholars’ work and evidence of their learning process on four walls of the classroom to showcase how they got here. Scholars become full of life in the learning process when the education scenario is lively and positive.

不必够“平均水平”每个学者都能成为更好的自己

Every scholar could become a better self without worrying about “the average level”

每一个学者在来到学校时,知识储备都是不同的。因此,要让每位学者都能在课堂学习中获得成长,就需要不同程度的任务与挑战。

然而,如果只是老师讲、学生听,就很难兼顾到每一位学者。而更加灵活和自由的PBL,却可以做到这一点,也就是我们常说的“个性化”。

邹菁校长讲了一个特别生动的例子:一个班级读一个绘本故事,有的孩子读过,有的孩子没有读过,那我们还要不要读?怎么读?

华二昆山的做法是,把它变成一次小小的PBL:先全班共读;然后,之前读过的学者,可以不同的形式,进行复述或演绎;最后,大家一起交流对这个故事的感受。

在这种项目式的学习体验中,每一位学者都能各自分领最适合的任务和挑战,而不用压抑或勉强自己,去够一个所谓的“平均水平”。

有的家长可能会担心,我的孩子学习任务这么简单,是不是落后了?

小学部学术总监瑞恩·帕里(Ryan Parry)有一张“学骑自行车”的图片来说明:这种差异并不意味着哪些孩子领先或落后。

Every scholar’s knowledge base is different before they come to the school. Therefore, differentiated levels of tasks and challenges need to be set, in order to develop every scholar during the education process in the classroom.

Obviously, the traditional mode of one-way instruction cannot benefit each scholar in the classroom. However, PBL, the more flexible and adaptable way of teaching, could achieve personalized learning.

Principal Zoe gave a vivid example: a class is tasked to read a picture book one day, but some young scholars have read the book while others haven’t. In this case, should the class carry on with the reading? If yes, how?

What Huaer Kunshan does is turning the session into a mini PBL activity: first all class read the book together, then the scholars who have read the book could retell or perform the story in different forms, with everyone sharing what they think about the story to conclude the session.

In this project-based learning experience, every scholar gets the tasks and challenges most suitable for them, without having to depress or force themselves to reach the “average level”.

Some parents may have the concern that if their children get the easier task, s/he would lag behind.

Academic Director Ryan Parry of the Elementary School uses a picture of “learning to ride to bike” to prove that differentiation in learning doesn’t not necessarily mean leading or lagging behind.

华二昆山国际学校会“玩”的课堂大学问
“学骑自行车”的图片

其实,大家都在学习同一个技能,只是强度和难度有所差异:有的学者可能需要先借助工具,那就从有辅助轮的自行车练起来;有的可能很快就能掌握,那就可以用一般自行车直接上手;若还有余力,可以尝试探索更加多样的方法。

这不禁让人想起,前苏联教育家维果茨基(Lev Vygotsky)对此有一个特别形象的比喻,叫做“跳一跳就能够到的果实”。它的学名叫做“最近发展区理论”(Zone of proximal development)。就是说,每位学习者都可以根据自己现有的水平,通过学习过程“跳一跳”,然后够到“果实”,收获自己的学习成果。

“其实,‘小马过河’的故事大家都听过,可到了真实的生活中,我们总是忍不住去看‘老牛’和‘松鼠’。我们为什么不相信自己的‘小马’呢?不要用‘别人家的孩子’去规训限制自己的孩子,当我们学会尊重孩子的特点,你就会看到,他们都能成为更好的自己。”邹菁校长笑着说。

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In fact, everyone is learning the same skill but with difference in depth and intensity. Some scholars might need assistance to start with, then they would learn to ride a bike with stabilizers. Other scholars might master the skill faster, then they could hop on a bike directly. If able, scholars could also explore more ways of riding the bike.

This example reminds us of a very good metaphor used by Lev Vygotsky, an educator from the former Soviet Union, “the fruit that could be reached by a leap”. The formal name of this theory is called “Zone of proximal development”, which indicates that each scholar could reach their “fruit”, i.e. the learning outcome, by the learning process of “leaping”, based on their current level.

“We all have heard the story of ‘How a Colt Crossed the River’. But in real life, we cannot help but looking at the ‘cow’ and the ‘squirrel’. Why don’t we trust our own ‘colts’? Parents shouldn’t blame or restrict their own children by comparing them to ‘the other kids’. When we learn to respect the special traits of each child, we’ll witness how they become a better self.”, smiled by Principal Zou.

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